Introduction:

Nowadays, the search for optimum utilization of energy resources is becoming increasingly important. This is due to the alarming depletion rates of high-quality energy carriers, finite natural resources, the rapid growth in population and industrialization, and the associated increase in energy demand and consumption.

Industrials and commercials are ones of the sectors that have been greatly benefited from the introduction of Solar systems. Renewable energy has become an economically and technically attractive alternative to conventional energy sources.

Grid tie P.V (Photo-Voltaic) projects are the most common and most appropriate used methodology; it is widely spreaded across the world since it proved its independency and feasibility. Our region will attest large expansion and large projects during the coming few years.

Jordan is one of the counters which occupies high ranking in solar radiation which considered as 5.6 KWh/m2/day on yearly average, and southern region are the highest in Jordan which can reach to 6KWh/m2/day.

From the above figures we can conclude that the most appropriate alternative energy resource is the sun, for the reasons sustainable, eco friendly, cost effective

How Solar Power Panel Works

To understand how solar power panels work and provide electricity I have broken down its working and processes in to steps for better understanding. These steps are mentioned with the in the order as it happens in given solar plant. Steps like S

PV

un light, Earth surface, Photovoltaic Cells, Weather Station, DC switch, Inverter, Transformer, AC switch, Electric meter.

1. SUN LIGHT: Sun is the only source for light for earth, sun produces enormous amount of energy due to fusion reactions with in its core. Portions of energy are travelled to the surface of the earth; these portions of energy are called photons. Sun light passes through different layers before entering into atmosphere of earth, these layers have specific filtration process which filter harmful energy and light and prevent it to reach on earth. The energy which gets in the atmosphere is reflected and absorbed by earth, crops water, oceans etc and some of the energy is reflected back into space. Rest of the energy is available to take to produce energy from.

2. Earth Surface: Earth receives enormous amount of radiant energy from the sun, even after reflection of most of the energy during traveling from sun to earth. This energy available is still on huge scale to be converted into electricity using solar panels. Sun light is the most important part to complete life cycle of human beings and other living organisms including animals and plants. Combination of sun light, sea and atmosphere creates wind pressure which keeps weather systems of earth intact, these winds can also be utilized for producing electricity with help of wind machines.

3. Photovoltaic Cells: The most important component of solar panel which produces electricity is photovoltaic cells. The basic function of photovoltaic cells is to convert sun radiant energy into electricity. The word photovoltaic it self means light energy, photo means light and voltaic means energy. Each photovoltaic cell is packed into modules which are called arrays. These cells produce DC direct current when sun is shining directly over them, produced electricity is then send to building electric system or grid station for next step.

4. Inverter: Inverter is device which converts direct current (DC) into usable Alternative current (AC). Photovoltaic cells produce direct current which inverter converts into alternative current so that it can be consumed by building. Most of electric devices like computers, house lights, air conditioners etc require alternative current (AC) to operate.

These are four steps which are must to be taken place for any solar panel to work. However there may be some additional steps which can be installed by different companies to enhance and improve the maintenance and overall performance or entire solar panels. These steps may include, electric meter, weather station device, DC switch disconnection module, Transformer, AC switch disconnection module, data acquisition module, electricity distribution panel module.

Electric meter: These electric meters are used for the same purpose as our normal electric meters are used for. They keep the record of energy being consumed which is produced by solar panels. Normally electric energy is measured in watts or kilowatts. Most of solar panels come with electric meters especially when panels are designed to produce energy on large scale.

Data acquisition module: Data acquisition module is important module which receives inputs from weather station module and electric meter. It is normally designed in such a way that it gathers important information to calculate weather conditions and output of solar panels.

Weather Station module: Weather station is another useful add-on for solar panels. As name suggests it keeps the record of weather conditions. Weathers conditions are very crucial as far as the performance or solar panels are concern, therefore keeping weather conditions as record is important. These modules are normally located near photovoltaic cells or arrays. Weather station normally have anemometer to keep the record for wind speed, pyranometer keeps record for solar energy falling on solar panel arrays and of course thermometer to measure temperature. All these inputs are then send to data acquisition module for further processing.

Transformer: Transformer is an important component for any electric system; it makes sure that electricity coming from inverter is compatible with electric voltage of house, building office etc.

DC switch disconnection module: This module helps professional solar panel electricians to disconnection solar panel from the rest of its system. When DC switch is off, electricians can do maintenance task on the rest of solar panel components.

AC switch disconnect module: This module allows electricians to disconnect electric supply of house or building from photovoltaic system. With AC switch turned off maintenance of solar photovoltaic system can be performed.

Electricity distribution panel module: This module is designed to receive energy from solar panels which is then combined with other electricity supply company. From here this energy is passed on electric wiring all over the building, house office etc to run electric appliances.

Solar Energy Advantages

Solar electricity is definitely the choice of future by energy analysts throughout the world, especially if we keep any eye over other power generation sources fuels, gas etc and their rising prices all the time. Countries have struggled in recent past due to fuel resource for managing their country needs. That is going go on and increase in future if alternative energy/ renewable energy sources are not exploited to their maximum available potentials. Read below the most obvious advantages of solar energy. There are countless advantages associated with Solar Energy. Uses for solar energy are not just for humans to take advantages from but it is amazingly useful for environment as well. Lets’ go through several advantages of solar energy.

• The most unique and best feature of solar energy is its abundance in quantity available to our mother earth, if we use it to maximum levels it is not going to go anywhere until next five billion years.

• The most unique and best feature of solar energy is its abundance in quantity available to our mother earth, if we use it to maximum levels it is not going to go anywhere until next five billion years.

• Solar energy can is easily be provided in rural areas where conventional electricity is not present already or it may cost more to setup electric grid station. It is cost effective to use solar energy generation methodologies in such rural areas.

• Solar power plants can also be connected to existing source of power generation to form hybrid system to boost energy requirements during sunny, hot and dry day.

• Solar power plants are normally very flexible. Solar cell modules or arrays comes in different shapes and sizes, it can be fixed on land or can be mounted on roof tops for maximum sun light exposure. Solar cell modules can also be fixed on glass skylights or vertical walls.

• Solar panels now come equipped with such devices which converts DC output from solar panels into AC for consumption. This way residential and commercial business owner can reduce their conventional electricity bills which are increasing day by day.

• Net metering is another impressive advantage of using solar energy. Net metering is term which refers to selling energy to conventional grid station in cases of excess production using solar panels. This way electricity bills are reduced by sending electricity back to grid station.

• Solar power panels are durable and do not require much maintenance, once in while cleaning of solar cell modules will be it. Average life time of solar power panels are up to 20 to 25 years, which justify the initial cost of solar panel.

• Solar power systems are soundless, efficient and without any pollution. Solar panels are capable of connecting with other type electric generators for instance gas turbines, wind, hydro etc. Batteries can also be charges for constant electricity supply.

• Larger solar power panels can help in meeting the demands of new power generation sources. These panels are easy to develop then other power generation plants. Solar power panels are very easy to expand, all is require adding up solar cell modules into it and it will start producing more electricity.

• Solar power systems are very friendly to environment and do not pollute it in anyway, they do not have any by product only electricity is produced. When solar electricity is used in place of energy generated by fossil fuels for meeting needs like lightening homes, office buildings, pumping of water etc, it will reduce amount of carbon-monoxide, greenhouse gasses and other pollution emitted into air. The more electricity from solar panels is used the more it is benefited for environment to reduce impurities from our atmosphere.

Type of Photovoltaic Panel

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